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*Under construction* (Please pardon the unnecessary underlining below.)

This page is a collection of Web links of direct interest to persons who wish to understand the threat posed by biological and chemical agents, whether used by nations as weapons of warfare or used by individual terrorists or terrorist groups.

Terrorist Use of Chemical Weapons Topics covered are: classification and description of chemical weapons (blister agents, choking agents, blood agents, nerve agents), the advantages and disadvantages chemical weapons offer to terrorists, the future of chemical weapons, and possible solutions. Austin Godber, Arizona State.

Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents Outline and checklist for emergency service responders. Lists major lethal and nonlethal chemical and biological agents, their effects, symptoms, and treatment (where possible).

  • I. Lethal Chemical Agents: Lung irritants (phosgene gas), Blood gases (hydrogen cyanide), Vesicants (mustard gas), Nerve Agents (G series--Tabun, Sarin, Soman; V series-- VE, VM, VX gases).
  • II. Incapacitating Psychochemicals (BZ).
  • III. Lethal or Debilitating Biological Agents: (1) Biotoxins (botulinal toxin, staphylococcal enterotoxins), (2) Viral Agents (Yellow Fever, Tick-borne Encephalitis, Japanese Encephalitis, Dengue Fever, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis, Chikungunga, Rift Valley Fever, Influenza, and Small pox), (3) Rickettsial Infections (Typhus--Rickettsia prowaziki; Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever--Rickettsia rickettsi; Q Fever--Coxiella burnetti), (4) Bacterial Infections (Plague--pasteurella pestis, Anthrax--bacillus anthracis, Tularaemia--pasturella tularensis, Brucellosis--brucella spp.; Typhoid Fever--salmonella typhi), and, (5) Fungal Infections Coccidioidomycosis--coccidioides immitis).
  • Includes permanent effects table.

Chemical and Biological Weapons Web Resources - This topic can be accessed by a Yahoo search for "Chemical and Biological Weapons Resource Page" (Center for Nonproliferation Studies at the Monterey Institute). (Stimson Organization, a nonproliferation peace group, but excellent data, and excellent internal links). Federation of American Scientists, extensive resources, links, and technical information.

Emergency Response to Chemical / Biological Terrorist Incidents

Biological Warfare Defense Information Sheet (DOD). Tularemia Anthrax

Chemical and Biological Weapons Threats to America: Are We Prepared? Statement for the Record by Richard Preston Before The Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on Technology, Terrorism & Government Information and the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, April 22, 1998.

Recent Disease Outbreaks: Tracks the dates and geography of recent outbreaks of anthrax, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), cholera, dengue, ebola, fatal fever (Peru), foodborne illnesses, hantavirus, HIV, influenza, legionellosis, malaria, monkeypox, plague, tuberculosis, yellow fever, etc. New link is World Health Organization, Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response (CSR).

Iraqi Chemical/Biological Warfare Capability Report to U.S. Congress on number, type, and quantities of Iraqi chemical and biological uncovered and destroyed by inspectors after the Gulf War. Also discusses current Iraqi chemical/biological weapons capability and threat to U.S.

Chemical and Biological Weapons Materials sold to Iraq by United States during Reagan and Bush administrations prior to 1991 Gulf War. For source and complete text see pages 10 through 19. (Go.)

Chester, C. V. Strategic Potential of Biological Weapons. Tenn.: Oak Ridge National Lab, Sep. 1991. (13 p.) [Also in: American Civil Defense Association (ACDA) Annual Meeting, Las Vegas, Nev. (United States), 25 Sep. 1991. Sponsored by Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.]

ABSTRACT: Biological weapons are potentially as superior to chemical weapons in casualty production per unit weight as nuclear explosives are to chemical explosives--about 105 times. However, to realize this superiority, it is required that disease-producing organisms that decay slowly be disseminated efficiently as a 1-to 5-micron particle diameter aerosol which can be breathed by the target population. Furthermore, the toxic cloud is totally dependent on weather conditions (wind, sunlight, atmospheric stability) at the time of release for cloud movement and persistence. Biological weapons have the potential for inflicting tremendous casualties on civilian populations if deployed skillfully under good conditions. These include deployment at night in light but steady winds of the right amount of agent of the right particle size in a densely populated area. Casualties could approach those from a nuclear attack. REPORT NUMBER: CONF9109273-1 ACCESSION NUMBER: DE91018931

 The Russian Connection Smuggling Special Nuclear Materials

ABSTRACT:"Ever since the collapse of the former Soviet Union, reports have circulated with increasing frequency concerning attempts to smuggle materials from that country's civil and military nuclear programs. Such an increase obviously raises a number of concerns, chief among which is the possibility that these materials might eventually fall into the hands of proliferant states or terrorist groups." by Robitaille, A. and R. Purver - May 1995.

Chemical, Biological, and Nuclear Terrorism/Warfare -- TEXTS (Monographs, Conf - American Defense Preparedness Association. Chemical Systems Division. Chemical Operations Section. Chemical/Biological Operations and Survivability:...

 Chemical, Biological, and Nuclear Terrorism/Warfare -- Web Sites - Proliferation: Threat and Response. ABSTRACT: DoD News Briefing: Thursday, (April 11, 1996) for the release of the DoD report of the same name. Also...

War College Text on 21st Century Warfare in PDF format. Weapons of Mass Destruction.

Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies

Botulism Anthrax (see previous link), Plague, Smallpox, Tularemia.

Chapter 33, Botulinum Toxins, John Middlebrook, Ph.D., and David Franz, Ph.D. History and Miltary Significance.

CDC. Centers for Disease Control. Botulism.

Airborne Pathogens Database,

IAFC Policy Statement Proposed by the Hazardous Materials Committee and Approved by the IAFC Board of Directors August 1997. The IAFC Supports the Establishing of Standardized Equipment Caches for the Response to Terrorist Incidents

Gary Tate's Chemical Warfare Page (an excellent, easy to read, but comprehensive resource).

Emergency Response to Chemical/Biological Terrorist Incidents, By: Clark L. Staten, Executive Director, Emergency Response & Research Institute 08/07/97,

Chemical Warfare Agents (Types of Chemical Warfare Agents and Human Health Effects.)

FEMA Hazardous Materials Guide (Federal Emergency Management Agency) Guide for Handling Immediate Response to Hazardous Materials

Chemical Warfare Agents and Their Properties (How to Avoid Being a Secondary Victim) CBRNE - Chemical Warfare Agents. Types of Chemical Warfare Agents; Nerve Agents and Mustards - Properties, Clinical Effects, and Medical Management.




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Last Updated: Thu, Sep 27, 2001